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Bone: References
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Bisphosphonate References

1. Theriault RL, Lipton A, Hortobagyi GN et al.
Pamidronate reduces skeletal morbidity in women with advanced breast cancer bone lesions: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Protocol 18 Aredia Breast Study Group.
J Clin Oncol 1999;17:846-854.

2 Hortobagyi GN, Theriault RL, Porter L et al.
Efficacy of pamidronate in reducing skeletal complications in patients with breast cancer and lytic bone metastases.
Protocol 19 Aredia Breast Study Group.
N Engl J Med 1996;335:1785-1791.

9 Rogers MJ, Watts DJ, Russell RG.
Overview of bisphosphonates.
Cancer 1997;80(suppl 8):1652-1660.[Medline]

10 Yoneda T, Michigami T, Yi B et al.
Use of bisphosphonates for the treatment of bone metastasis in experimental animal models.
Cancer Treat Rev 1999;25:293-299.[Medline]

11 van der Pluijm G, Lowik C, Papapoulos S.
Tumour progression and angiogenesis in bone metastases from breast cancer: new approaches to an old problem. Cancer Treat Rev 2000;26:11-27.

12 Coleman RE.
Pamidronate disodium in the treatment and management of hypercalcaemia.
Reviews in Contemporary Pharmacotherapy 1998;9:147-164

13 Body JJ, Bartl R, Burckhardt P et al.
Current use of bisphosphonates in oncology.
International Bone and Cancer Study Group.
J Clin Oncol 1998;16:3890-3899.[Abstract]

14 Body JJ, Lichinitser MR, Diehl IE et al.
Double-blind placebo controlled trial of ibandronate in breast cancer metastatic to bone.
Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1999;18:575a.

15 Berenson JR, Lipton A, Rosen LS et al.
Phase I clinical study of a new bisphosphonate, zoledronate (CGP-42446), in patients with osteolytic bone metastases.
Blood 1998;88(suppl 1):586a.

16 Vinholes JJ, Purohit OP, Abbey ME et al.
Relationships between biochemical and symptomatic response in a double-blind trial of pamidronate for metastatic bone disease.
Ann Oncol 1997;8:1243-1250.

17 Coleman RE. Biochemical markers of malignant bone disease.
In: Rubens RD, Mundy GR, eds. Cancer and the Skeleton. London: Martin Dunitz, 2000:137-150.

18 Body JJ, Coleman RE., Piccart M.
Use of bisphosphonates in cancer patients.
Cancer Treat Rev 1996;22:265-287.[Medline]

19 Paterson AHG, Powles TJ, Kanis J et al.
Double-blind controlled trial of oral clodronate in patients with bone metastases from breast cancer.
J Clin Oncol 1993;11:59-65.[Abstract]

20 Lahtinen R, Laakso M, Palva I et al.
Randomised, placebo controlled multicentre trial of clodronate in multiple myeloma.
Finnish Leukaemia Group.
Lancet 1992;340:1049-1052.[Medline]

21 McCloskey EV, Maclennan ICM, Drayson M et al.
A randomised trial of the effect of clodronate on skeletal morbidity in multiple myeloma.
Br J Haematol 1998;100:317-325.[Medline]

22 Conte PF, Mauriac L, Calabresi F et al.
Delay in progression of bone metastases treated with intravenous pamidronate: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial.
J Clin Oncol 1996;14;2552-2559.

23 Hultborn R, Ryden S, Gunderson S et al.
Efficacy of pamidronate on skeletal complications from breast cancer metastases. A randomised prospective double blind placebo controlled trial.
Acta Oncol 1996;35(suppl 5):73-74.

24 Berenson JR, Lichtenstein A, Porter L et al.
Long-term pamidronate treatment of advanced multiple myeloma patients reduces skeletal events.
J Clin Oncol 1998;16:593-602.

25 Lipton A, Demers L, Curley E et al.
Markers of bone resorption in patients treated with pamidronate.
Eur J Cancer 1998;34:2021-2026.[Medline]

26 Lipton A, Theriault RL, Hortobagyi GN et al.
Pamidronate prevents skeletal complications and is effective palliative treatment in women with breast cancer and osteolytic bone metastases: long-term results of two randomised, placebo-controlled trials.
Cancer 2000;88:1082-1090.[Medline]

27 Body JJ, Lortholary A, Romieu G et al.
A dose-finding study of zoledronate in hypercalcaemic cancer patients.
J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:1557-1661.[Medline]

28 Major P, Lortholary A, Hon J et al.
Zoledronic acid is superior to pamidronate in the treatment of tumor-induced hypercalcamia: a pooled analysis. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2000;19:604a.

29 Coleman RE, Purohit OP, Black C et al.
Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of oral ibandronate in patients with metastatic bone disease.
Ann Oncol 1999;10:311-316.[Medline]

30 Saarto S, Blomqvist C, Valimaki M et al.
Chemical castration induced by adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil chemotherapy causes rapid bone loss which is reduced by clodronate: a randomised study in premenopausal patients.
J Clin Oncol 1997;15:1341-1347.

31 Powles TJ, Paterson AHG, Nevantaus A et al.
Adjuvant clodronate reduces the incidence of bone metastases in patients with primary operable breast cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1998;17:468a.

32 Diel I, Solomayer E-F, Costa SJ et al.
Reduction in new metastases in breast cancer with adjuvant clodronate treatment.
N Engl J Med 1998;339:357-363.

33 Saarto T, Blomqvist C, Virkkunen P et al.
No reduction of bone metastases with adjuvant clodronate treatment in node-positive breast cancer patients. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1999;18:128a.

34 Kong Y-Y, Yoshida H, Sarosi O et al.
OPGL is a key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, lymphocyte development and lymph-node organogenesis.
Nature 1999;397:315-323.[Medline]

35 Honore P, Luger NM, Sabino AC et al.
Osteoprotogerin blocks bone cancer-induced skeletal destruction. Skeletal pain and pain-related neurochemical re-organisation of the spinal cord.
Nat Med 2000;6:521-528.[Medline]

36 van Holten-Verzantvoort AT, Bijvoet OLM, Cleton FJ et al.
Reduced morbidity from skeletal metastases in breast cancer patients during long term bisphosphonate (APD) treatment.
Lancet 1987;ii:983-985.

37. Coleman, Robert E.
Management of Bone Metastases The Coleman Article
The Oncologist, Vol. 5, No. 6, 463-470, December 2000

Surgical References

1. Oetiker RF Ther Umsch, Palliative surgery for bone metastases ,2001 Dec;58(12):738-45

2. Fleming MP Arch Pathol Lab Med , Myelophthisis as a solitary manifestation of failure from rectal carcinoma. A Batson phenomenon? ,2000 Aug;124(8):1228-30

3. Sim FH, Ann Acad Med Singapore Metastatic bone disease: current concepts of clinicopathophysiology and modern surgical treatment. 1992 Mar; 21(2):274-9

4. Sanguinetti C , Chir Organi Mov The surgical treatment of spinal cord compression caused by tumorous metastases. A review of 91 cases. 1998 Jan-Jun;83(1-2):113-25

5. Coleman R., The Oncologist, Vol. 5, No. 6, 463-470, December 2000, (c) 2000 AlphaMed Press.

6. Healey JH, Brown HK. Complications of bone metastases-surgical management." [Cancer 2000;88(suppl 12):2940-2951

7. Taneichi H, Kaneda K, Takeda N, Abumi K, Satoh S , Risk factors and probability of vertebral body collapse in metastases of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Spine 1997 Feb 1;22(3):239-45

8. Mirels H. Metastatic disease in long bones. A proposed scoring system for diagnosing impending pathological fracture. Clin Orthop 1989;249:256-264

17: Hussein AA, El-Karef E, Hafez M. Eur J Surg Oncol 2001 Mar;27(2):196-9 Reconstructive surgery in spinal tumours.

30: Boriani S, Bandiera S, Biagini R, et. al.
Chir Organi Mov 2000 Oct-Dec;85(4):309-35. The use of the carbon-fiber reinforced modular implant for the reconstruction of the anterior column of the spine. A clinical and experimental study conducted on 42 cases.

31: Schulte M, Schultheiss M, et. al., Eur Spine J 2000 Oct;9(5):437-44, Vertebral body replacement with a bioglass-polyurethane composite in spine metastases--clinical, radiological and biomechanical results.

36: Hatrick NC, Lucas JD,, Radiother Oncol 2000 Sep;56(3):335-9, The surgical treatment of metastatic disease of the spine.

37: Bilsky MH, Boland P, et. al., Spine 2000 Sep 1;25(17):2240-9,discussion 250, Single-stage posterolateral transpedicle approach for spondylectomy, epidural decompression, and circumferential fusion of spinal metastases.

46: Merk H, Koch H, et. al. , Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 2000 Mar-Apr;138(2):169-73, Implantation of a Harms titanium mesh cylinder for vertebral body replacement in spinal metastases.

60: Huang TJ, Hsu RW, et. al., Complications in thoracoscopic spinal surgery: a study of 90 consecutive patients. Surg Endosc 1999 Apr;13(4):346-50

61: Giehl JP, Kluba T., Anticancer Res 1999 Mar-Apr;19(2C):1619-23, Metastatic spine disease in renal cell carcinoma--indication and results of surgery.

63: Janusz W, Mosiewicz A, et. al., Neurol Neurochir Pol 1999 Mar-Apr;33(2):403-12, Metastatic tumors in vertebral canal,

65: Okuyama T, Korenaga D, et. al., J Surg Oncol 1999 Jan;70(1):60-3, Quality of life following surgery for vertebral metastases from breast cancer.

67: Villas C, Arriagada C, et. al., Rev Med Univ Navarra 1998 Oct-Dec;42(4):188-93, Surgical treatment of vertebral metastasis. 70: Ther Umsch 1998 Jul;55(7):418-22 , Orthopedic aspects of vertebral metastases. Heini PF.

72: Been HD, van Ooij A, Veraart BE, Slot GH. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1998 May 2;142(18):1009-15, One hundred years of orthopedics in the Netherlands. IV. Spinal abnormalities.

74: Dominkus M, Krepler P, Schwameis E, Kotz R Orthopade 1998 May;27(5):282-6, Surgical therapy of spinal metastases,

76: Klekamp J, Samii H. , Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1998;140(9):957-67 , Surgical results for spinal metastases.

78: Sanguinetti C, Aulisa L,, Chir Organi Mov 1998 Jan-Jun;83(1-2):113-25 The surgical treatment of spinal cord compression caused by tumorous metastases. A review of 91 cases.

80: Boriani S, Biagini R, De Iure F,, Chir Organi Mov 1998 Jan-Jun;83(1-2):53-64 Resection surgery in the treatment of vertebral tumors.

81: Cappelletto B, Del Fabro P, Meo A., Chir Organi Mov 1998 Jan-Jun;83(1-2):167-76 Decompression and surgical stabilization in the palliative treatment of vertebral metastases.

87: Harrington KD. Cancer 1997 Oct 15;80(8 Suppl):1614-27 , Orthopedic surgical management of skeletal complications of malignancy.

98: Bauer HC. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1997 Apr;79(4):514-22 Comment in: J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998 Sep;80(9):1396. Posterior decompression and stabilization for spinal metastases. Analysis of sixty-seven consecutive patients.

108: Olerud C, Jonsson B., Acta Orthop Scand 1996 Oct;67(5):513-22 Surgical palliation of symptomatic spinal metastases.

110: Sundaresan N, Steinberger AA, Moore F,, J Neurosurg 1996 Sep;85(3):438-46, Indications and results of combined anterior-posterior approaches for spine tumor surgery.

121: Onimus M, Papin P, et. al., Eur Spine J 1996;5(6):407-11, Results of surgical treatment of spinal thoracic and lumbar metastases.

123: Hosono N, Yonenobu K,, Spine 1995 Nov 15;20(22):2454-62 Vertebral body replacement with a ceramic prosthesis for metastatic spinal tumors.

124: Plotz W, Wicke-Wittenius S, et. al., Fortschr Med 1995 Nov 10;113(31):437-40 Vertebral replacement in palliative tumor therapy. Possible surgical procedures--significant improvement in quality of life.

126: Breslau J, Eskridge JM. J Vasc Interv Radiol 1995 Nov-Dec;6(6):871-5 Preoperative embolization of spinal tumors.

129: Hosono N, Yonenobu K, Fuji T, Ebara S,, Clin Orthop 1995 Mar;(312):148-59 Orthopaedic management of spinal metastases.

139: Tomita K, Kawahara N, Baba H, Tsuchiya H, Nagata S, Toribatake Y. Total en bloc spondylectomy for solitary spinal metastases. Int Orthop 1994 Oct;18(5):291-8

151: Toma S, Venturino A, Sogno G,, Clin Orthop 1993 Oct;(295):246-51 Metastatic bone tumors. Nonsurgical treatment. Outcome and survival.

155: Freiberg AA, Graziano GP, et. al. Metastatic vertebral disease in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1993 Mar-Apr;13(2):148-53
Embolization References

4: Breslau J, Eskridge JM. Preoperative embolization of spinal tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol 1995 Nov-Dec;6(6):871-5

5: Mori K, Yamada S, Kosaka A, et. al., A case of liver metastases from leiomyosarcoma in the chest wall which was made resectable by chemoembolization. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1997 Sep;24(12):1741-4

6: Griffith JF, Kumta SM. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (25). Aggressive vertebral haemangioma. Singapore Med J 1997 May;38(5):226-30

7: Ikejiri K, Furuyama M, Muranaka T, Anai H, Takeo S, Sakai K, Saku M, Yoshida K. Carcinoma of the thyroid manifested as hyperthyroidism caused by functional bone metastasis. Clin Nucl Med 1997 Apr;22(4):227-30

8: Olerud C, Jonsson B. Surgical palliation of symptomatic spinal metastases. Acta Orthop Scand 1996 Oct;67(5):513-22

11. O'Reilly GV, Kleefield J, Klein LA, Blume HW, Dubuisson D, Cosgrove GR. Embolization of solitary spinal metastases from renal cell carcinoma: alternative therapy for spinal cord or nerve root compression. PMID: 2928919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: Taki Y, Yamaoka Y, Takayasu T, Ino K, Shimahara Y, Mori K, Morimoto T, Ozawa K. Bone metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver resection. J Surg Oncol 1992 May;50(1):12-8

15: Harrington DP, Barth KH, Baker RR, Truax BT, Abeloff MD, White RI Jr. Therapeutic embolization for hemorrhage from locally recurrent cancer of the breast. Radiology 1978 Nov;129(2):307-10

18: Bilsky MH, Boland P, Lis E, Raizer JJ, Healey JH. Single-stage posterolateral transpedicle approach for spondylectomy, epidural decompression, and circumferential fusion of spinal metastases. Spine 2000 Sep 1;25(17):2240-9,discussion 250

22: Nagata Y, Mitsumori M, Okajima K, Mizowaki T,, Transcatheter arterial embolization for malignant osseous and soft tissue sarcomas. II. Clinical results.Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 1998 May-Jun;21(3):208-13

44: Smit JW, Vielvoye GJ, Goslings BM, Embolization for vertebral metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000 Mar;85(3):989-9457: Berkefeld J, Scale D, Kirchner J, Heinrich T, Kollath J., Hypervascular spinal tumors: influence of the embolization technique on perioperative hemorrhage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999

72: Taniguchi T, Ohta K, Ohmura S, Yamamoto K, Kobayashi T. Perioperative management for total en bloc spondylectomy--the effects of preoperative embolization and hypotensive anesthesia Masui 2000 Feb;49(2):168-71

87: Choi IS, Tantivatana J. Neuroendovascular management of intracranial and spinal tumors. Neurosurg Clin N Am 2000 Jan;11(1):167-85

Further References Obtained from a Review Article

1.. Luessenhop AJ, Kachmann R, Shevlin W. 1965 Clinical evaluation of artificial embolization in the management of large cerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg. 23:400.

2.. Gomes AS, Busuttil RW, Baker JD, Oppenheim W, Machleder HI, Moore WS. 1983 Congenital arteriovenous malformations. The role of transcatheter arterial embolization. Arch Surg. 118:817-825.[Medline]

3.. Dawson RC, Joseph GJ, Owens DS, Barrow DL. 1998 Transvenous embolization as the primary therapy for arteriovenous fistulas of the lateral and sigmoid sinuses. Am J Neuroradiol. 19:571-576.

4.. Hekster RE, Luyendijk W, Tan TI. 1972 Spinal-cord compression caused by vertebral haemangioma relieved by percutaneous catheter embolisation. Neuroradiology. 3:160-164.[Medline]

5.. Hekster RE, Endtz LJ. 1987 Spinal-cord compression caused by vertebral haemangioma relieved by percutaneous catheter embolisation: 15 years later. Neuroradiology. 29:101.[Medline]

6.. Guibaud L, Herbreteau D, Dubois J, et al. 1998 Aneurysmal bone cysts: percutaneous embolization with an alcoholic solution of zein-series of 18 cases. Radiology. 208:369-373.

7.. Ravina JH, Herbreteau D, Ciraru-Vigneron N, et al. 1995 Arterial embolisation to treat uterine myomata. Lancet. 346:671-672.[Medline]

8.. Gold RE, Grace DM. 1975 Gelfoam embolization of the left gastric artery for bleeding ulcer: experimental considerations. Radiology. 116:575-580.

9.. Valavanis A. 1986 Preoperative embolization of the head and neck: indications, patient selection, goals, and precautions. Am J Neuroradiol. 7:943-952.

10.. Casasco A, Herbreteau D, Houdart E, et al. 1994 Devascularization of craniofacial tumors by percutaneous tumor puncture. Am J Neuroradiol. 15:1233-1239.

11.. Smith TP, Gray L, Weinstein JN, Richardson WJ, Payne CS. 1995 Preoperative transarterial embolization of spinal column neoplasms. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 6:863-869.

12.. Barton PP, Waneck RE, Karnel FJ, Ritschl P, Kramer J, Lechner GL. 1996 Embolization of bone metastases. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 7:81-88.

13.. Gellad FE, Sadato N, Numaguchi Y, Levine AM. 1990 Vascular metastatic lesions of the spine: preoperative embolization. Radiology. 176:683-686.

14.. Hess T, Kramann B, Schmidt E, Rupp S. 1997 Use of preoperative vascular embolisation in spinal metastasis resection. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 116:279-282.[Medline]

15.. O'Reilly GV, Kleefield J, Klein LA, Blume HW, Dubuisson D, Cosgrove GR. 1989 Embolization of solitary spinal metastases from renal cell carcinoma: alternative therapy for spinal cord or nerve root compression. Surg Neurol. 31:268-271.[Medline]

16.. Sundaresan N, Choi IS, Hughes JE, Sachdev VP, Berenstein A. 1990 Treatment of spinal metastases from kidney cancer by presurgical embolization and resection. J Neurosurg. 73:548-554.[Medline]

17.. Sun S, Lang EV. 1998 Bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma: preoperative embolization. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 9:263-269.
18.. Wallace S, Chuang VP, Swanson D, et al. 1981 Embolization of renal carcinoma. Radiology. 138:563-570.

19.. Chuang VP, Soo CS, Wallace S. 1981 Ivalon embolization in abdominal neoplasms. Am J Roentgenol. 136:729-733.

20.. Wallace S, Charnsangavej C, Carrasco CH, Bechtel W. 1984 Infusion-embolization. Cancer. 54:2751-2765.[Medline]

21.. Tadavarthy SM, Moller JH, Amplatz K. 1975 Polyvinyl alcohol (Ivalon)-a new embolic material. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 125:609-616.[Medline]

22.. Camille RR, Leger FA, Merland JJ, Saillant G, Savoie JC, Riche MC. 1980 Recent advances in the treatment of bone metastases from cancer of the thyroid (author's translation). Chirurgie. 106:32-36.[Medline]

23.. Ripp GA, Wendth AJJ, Vitale P. 1977 Metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the mandible mimicking an arteriovenous malformation. J Oral Surg. 35:743-745.[Medline]

24.. Monteil JP, Houlbert D, Saliba N, Despreaux G, Tran BH. 1985 Cranial and cervical metastases of vascular nature in thyroid cancer. Apropos of 2 cases. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 102:53-57.[Medline]

25.. Yamasoba T, Kikuchi S, Sugasawa M, Higo R, Sasaki T. 1994 Occult follicular carcinoma metastasizing to the sinonasal tract. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 56:239-243.[Medline]

26.. Chuang VP, Wallace S, Swanson D, et al. 1979 Arterial occlusion in the management of pain from metastatic renal carcinoma. Radiology. 133:611-614.

27.. Hermanek P, Sobin LH. 1992 Thyroid gland (ICD-OC73). TNM classification of malignant tumors, 4th ed, 2nd rev. International Union Against Cancer. Berlin: Springer Verlag; 35-37.

28.. Goslings BM. 1975 Proceedings: effect of a low iodine diet on 131-I therapy in follicular thyroid carcinomata. J Endocrinol. 64:30P.

29.. Schlumberger M, Challeton C, De Vathaire F, et al. 1996 Radioactive iodine treatment and external radiotherapy for lung and bone metastases from thyroid carcinoma. J Nucl Med. 37:598-605.

30.. Pelikan DM, Lion HL, Hermans J, Goslings BM. 1997 The role of radioactive iodine in the treatment of advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf.).47 :713-720.

31.. Rockwell S. 1997 Oxygen delivery: implications for the biology and therapy of solid tumors. Oncol Res. 9:383-390.[Medline]
Radioisotope References

3: Ozaki T, Flege S, Liljenqvist U, Hillmann A, Delling G, Salzer-Kuntschik M, Jurgens H, Kotz R, Winkelmann W, Bielack SS. Osteosarcoma of the spine: experience of the Cooperative Osteosarcoma Study Group. Cancer. 2002 Feb 15;94(4):1069-77.
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4: Anderson PM, Wiseman GA, Dispenzieri A, Arndt CA, Hartmann LC, Smithson WA, Mullan BP, Bruland OS.
High-dose samarium-153 ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate: low toxicity of skeletal irradiation in patients with osteosarcoma and bone metastases. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jan 1;20(1):189-96.
Fetch PMID: 11773169

5: Ramamoorthy N, Saraswathy P, Das MK, Mehra KS, Ananthakrishnan M.
Production logistics and radionuclidic purity aspects of 153Sm for radionuclide therapy. Nucl Med Commun. 2002 Jan;23(1):83-9.
Fetch PMID: 11748442

6: Franzius C, Bielack S, Flege S, Eckardt J, Sciuk J, Jurgens H, Schober O.
High-activity samarium-153-EDTMP therapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell support in unresectable osteosarcoma. Nuklearmedizin. 2001 Dec;40(6):215-20.
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8: Thurman SA, Ramakrishna NR, DeWeese TL.
Radiation therapy for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2001 Jun;15(3):423-43.
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9: Serafini AN.
Therapy of metastatic bone pain. J Nucl Med. 2001 Jun;42(6):895-906.
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11: Serafini AN.
Systemic metabolic radiotherapy with samarium-153 EDTMP for the treatment of painful bone metastasis. Q J Nucl Med. 2001 Mar;45(1):91-9. Review.
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13: Brenner W, Kampen WU, Kampen AM, Henze E.
Skeletal uptake and soft-tissue retention of 186Re-HEDP and 153Sm-EDTMP in patients with metastatic bone disease. J Nucl Med. 2001 Feb;42(2):230-6.
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15: Silberstein EB, Eugene L, Saenger SR.
Painful osteoblastic metastases: the role of nuclear medicine. Oncology (Huntingt). 2001 Feb;15(2):157-63; discussion 167-70, 174. Review.
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20: Silberstein EB.
Systemic radiopharmaceutical therapy of painful osteoblastic metastases. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2000 Jul;10(3):240-9. Review.
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21: Serafini AN.
Samarium Sm-153 lexidronam for the palliation of bone pain associated with metastases. Cancer. 2000 Jun 15;88(12 Suppl):2934-9. Review.
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23: McEwan AJ.
Use of radionuclides for the palliation of bone metastases. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2000 Apr;10(2):103-14. Review.
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25: Klutmann S, Bohuslavizki KH.
[Palliation of bone pain in metastatic prostate carcinoma. Value of radionuclide therapy with rhenium 186 HEDP] MMW Fortschr Med. 1999 Nov 4;141(44):38-9. German.
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26: Dickie GJ, Macfarlane D.
Strontium and samarium therapy for bone metastases from prostate carcinoma. Australas Radiol. 1999 Nov;43(4):476-9.
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28: Papatheofanis FJ.
Variation in oncologic opinion regarding management of metastatic bone pain with systemic radionuclide therapy. J Nucl Med. 1999 Sep;40(9):1420-3.
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29: Cameron PJ, Klemp PF, Martindale AA, Turner JH.
Prospective 153Sm-EDTMP therapy dosimetry by whole-body scintigraphy. Nucl Med Commun. 1999 Jul;20(7):609-15.
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33: Tian JH, Zhang JM, Hou QT, Oyang QH, Wang JM, Luan ZS, Chuan L, He YJ.
Multicentre trial on the efficacy and toxicity of single-dose samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate as a palliative treatment for painful skeletal metastases in China. Eur J Nucl Med. 1999 Jan;26(1):2-7.
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34: Franzius C, Bielack S, Sciuk J, Vollet B, Jurgens H, Schober O.
High-activity samarium-153-EDTMP therapy in unresectable osteosarcoma. Nuklearmedizin. 1999;38(8):337-40.
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35: van Rensburg AJ, Alberts AS, Louw WK.
Quantifying the radiation dosage to individual skeletal lesions treated with samarium-153-EDTMP. J Nucl Med. 1998 Dec;39(12):2110-5.
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36: Coleman RE.
How can we improve the treatment of bone metastases further? Curr Opin Oncol. 1998 Aug;10 Suppl 1:S7-13. Review.
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37: Lovera C, Massardo T, Galleguillos MC, Gonzalez P, Comparini B, Yanez M, Fodor M, Gil MC, Araya G, Tomicic M.

[Analgesic response and secondary effects in patients with osteoblastic metastasis, treated with Samarium 153 ethylenediaminotetramethylenephosphate] Rev Med Chil. 1998 Aug;126(8):963-71. Spanish.
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38: Knapp FF Jr, Mirzadeh S, Beets AL, O'Doherty M, Blower PJ, Verdera ES, Gaudiano JS, Kropp J, Guhlke J, Palmedo H, Biersack HJ.
Reactor-produced radioisotopes from ORNL for bone pain palliation. Appl Radiat Isot. 1998 Apr;49(4):309-15.
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39: Serafini AN, Houston SJ, Resche I, Quick DP, Grund FM, Ell PJ, Bertrand A, Ahmann FR, Orihuela E, Reid RH, Lerski RA, Collier BD, McKillop JH, Purnell GL, Pecking AP, Thomas FD, Harrison KA.
Palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer using samarium-153 lexidronam: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Apr;16(4):1574-81.
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47: Resche I, Chatal JF, Pecking A, Ell P, Duchesne G, Rubens R, Fogelman I, Houston S, Fauser A, Fischer M, Wilkins D.Related Articles
A dose-controlled study of 153Sm-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate (EDTMP) in the treatment of patients with painful bone metastases. Eur J Cancer. 1997 Sep;33(10):1583-91.
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49: Alberts AS, Smit BJ, Louw WK, van Rensburg AJ, van Beek A, Kritzinger V, Nel JS.
Dose response relationship and multiple dose efficacy and toxicity of samarium-153-EDTMP in metastatic cancer to bone. Radiother Oncol. 1997 May;43(2):175-9.
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50: McEwan AJ.
Unsealed source therapy of painful bone metastases: an update. Semin Nucl Med. 1997 Apr;27(2):165-82. Review.
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51: Ben-Josef E, Porter AT.
Radioisotopes in the treatment of bone metastases. Ann Med. 1997 Feb;29(1):31-5. Review.
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53: Lewington VJ.
Cancer therapy using bone-seeking isotopes. Phys Med Biol. 1996 Oct;41(10):2027-42. Review.
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55: Atkins HL, Srivastava SC.
Radiolabeled bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Q J Nucl Med. 1996 Sep;40(3):285-9. Review.
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56: Olea E, Gil MC, Tomicic M, Araya G, Chandia M, Quintana JC, Pinto L, Orellana P, Nagel J, Ortiz V.
[Nationally produced 153SmEDTMP in the palliative treatment of metastatic bone cancer pain] Rev Med Chil. 1996 Jul;124(7):805-12. Spanish.
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59: Bruland OS, Skretting A, Solheim OP, Aas M.
Targeted radiotherapy of osteosarcoma using 153 Sm-EDTMP. A new promising approach. Acta Oncol. 1996;35(3):381-4.
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60: Deng H, Luo S, Tan T, Mo T, Liang Z, Pu M, Jiao J, Zhong S, Wang Q, Hu Y, et al.
[153Sm-EDTMP for moderate and severe bone cancer pain] Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1995 Dec;26(4):391-4. Chinese.
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61: Robinson RG, Preston DF, Schiefelbein M, Baxter KG.Related Articles
Strontium 89 therapy for the palliation of pain due to osseous metastases. JAMA. 1995 Aug 2;274(5):420-4. Review.
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62: Deng H, Tan T, Mo T, Zhong S, Kuan A, Hu Y.
[Effect of 153Sm-EDTMP on hematopoiesis and vital organs of 93 patients with bone tumor] Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1995 Jun;26(2):155-9. Chinese.
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64: Serafini AN.
Current status of systemic intravenous radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of painful metastatic bone disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1994 Dec 1;30(5):1187-94. Review.
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65: Ahonen A, Joensuu H, Hiltunen J, Hannelin M, Heikkila J, Jakobsson M, Jurvelin J, Kairemo K, Kumpulainen E, Kulmala J, et al.

Samarium-153-EDTMP in bone metastases. J Nucl Biol Med. 1994 Dec;38(4 Suppl 1):123-7.
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66: Porter AT, Ben-Josef E, Davis L.
Systemic administration of new therapeutic radioisotopes, including phosphorus, strontium, samarium, and rhenium. Curr Opin Oncol. 1994 Nov;6(6):607-10. Review.
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67: Jiang CY, Zhu BL, Zhang YJ.
[The value of Sm-153-EDTMP for treatment of metastatic bone pain and improving quality of life] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 1994 Mar;16(2):118-21. Chinese.
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68: Schott ME, Schlom J, Siler K, Milenic DE, Eggensperger D, Colcher D, Cheng R, Kruper WJ Jr, Fordyce W, Goeckeler W.Related Articles
Biodistribution and preclinical radioimmunotherapy studies using radiolanthanide-labeled immunoconjugates. Cancer. 1994 Feb 1;73(3 Suppl):993-8.
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69: Porter AT, Davis LP.
Systemic radionuclide therapy of bone metastases with strontium-89. Oncology (Huntingt). 1994 Feb;8(2):93-6; discussion 96, 99-101.
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72: Bayouth JE, Macey DJ, Kasi LP, Fossella FV.

Dosimetry and toxicity of samarium-153-EDTMP administered for bone pain due to skeletal metastases. J Nucl Med. 1994 Jan;35(1):63-9.
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73: Collins C, Eary JF, Donaldson G, Vernon C, Bush NE, Petersdorf S, Livingston RB, Gordon EE, Chapman CR, Appelbaum FR.Related Articles
Samarium-153-EDTMP in bone metastases of hormone refractory prostate carcinoma: a phase I/II trial. J Nucl Med. 1993 Nov;34(11):1839-44.
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75: Eary JF, Collins C, Stabin M, Vernon C, Petersdorf S, Baker M, Hartnett S, Ferency S, Addison SJ, Appelbaum F, et al.Related Articles
Samarium-153-EDTMP biodistribution and dosimetry estimation. J Nucl Med. 1993 Jul;34(7):1031-6.
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76: Goeckeler WF, Stoneburner LK, Kasi LP, Fossella FV, Price DR, Fordyce WA.
Analysis of urine samples from metastatic bone cancer patients administered 153Sm-EDTMP. Nucl Med Biol. 1993 Jul;20(5):657-61.
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77: Holmes RA.
Radiopharmaceuticals in clinical trials. Semin Oncol. 1993 Jun;20(3 Suppl 2):22-6. Review.
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79: Lewington VJ.
Targeted radionuclide therapy for bone metastases. Eur J Nucl Med. 1993 Jan;20(1):66-74. Review.
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81: Farhanghi M, Holmes RA, Volkert WA, Logan KW, Singh A.Related Articles
Samarium-153-EDTMP: pharmacokinetic, toxicity and pain response using an escalating dose schedule in treatment of metastatic bone cancer. J Nucl Med. 1992 Aug;33(8):1451-8.
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82: Sandeman TF, Budd RS, Martin JJ.
Samarium-153-labelled EDTMP for bone metastases from cancer of the prostate. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 1992 May;4(3):160-4.
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84: Robinson RG, Preston DF, Spicer JA, Baxter KG.
Radionuclide therapy of intractable bone pain: emphasis on strontium-89. Semin Nucl Med. 1992 Jan;22(1):28-32. Review.
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85: Holmes RA.
[153Sm]EDTMP: a potential therapy for bone cancer pain. Semin Nucl Med. 1992 Jan;22(1):41-5. Review.
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88: Turner JH, Claringbold PG.
A phase II study of treatment of painful multifocal skeletal metastases with single and repeated dose samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate. Eur J Cancer. 1991;27(9):1084-6.
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95: Goodman JH, Gahbauer RA, Kanellitsas C, Clendenon NR, Laster BH, Fairchild RG.
Theoretical basis and clinical methodology for stereotactic interstitial brain tumor irradiation using iododeoxyuridine as a radiation sensitizer and 145Sm as a brachytherapy source. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1990;54-55:531-4.
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96: Turner JH, Claringbold PG, Hetherington EL, Sorby P, Martindale AA.

A phase I study of samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate therapy for disseminated skeletal metastases. J Clin Oncol. 1989 Dec;7(12):1926-31.
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97: Singh A, Holmes RA, Farhangi M, Volkert WA, Williams A, Stringham LM, Ketring AR.
Human pharmacokinetics of samarium-153 EDTMP in metastatic cancer. J Nucl Med. 1989 Nov;30(11):1814-8.
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99: Turner JH, Martindale AA, Sorby P, Hetherington EL, Fleay RF, Hoffman RF, Claringbold PG.
Samarium-153 EDTMP therapy of disseminated skeletal metastasis. Eur J Nucl Med. 1989;15(12):784-95.
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100: Fairchild RG, Kalef-Ezra J, Packer S, Wielopolski L, Laster BH, Robertson JS, Mausner L, Kanellitsas C.
Samarium-145: a new brachytherapy source. Phys Med Biol. 1987 Jul;32(7):847-58.
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101: Logan KW, Volkert WA, Holmes RA.
Radiation dose calculations in persons receiving injection of samarium-153 EDTMP. J Nucl Med. 1987 Apr;28(4):505-9.
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102: Ketring AR.
153Sm-EDTMP and 186Re-HEDP as bone therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Int J Rad Appl Instrum B. 1987;14(3):223-32.
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103: Goeckeler WF, Troutner DE, Volkert WA, Edwards B, Simon J, Wilson D.
153Sm radiotherapeutic bone agents. Int J Rad Appl Instrum B. 1986;13(4):479-82.
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107: Muller WA, Schaffer EH, Linzner U.
Studies on incorporated short-lived beta-emitters with regard to the induction of late effects. Radiat Environ Biophys. 1980;18(1):1-11.
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108: Shah Syed GM, Maken RN, Muzzaffar N, Shah MA, Rana F.
Effective and economical option for pain palliation in prostate cancer with skeletal metastases: 32P therapy revisited. Nucl Med Commun 1999 Aug;20(8):697-702
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109: Akerley W, Butera J, Wehbe T, Noto R, Stein B, Safran H, Cummings F, Sambandam S, Maynard J, Di Rienzo G, Leone L.
A multiinstitutional, concurrent chemoradiation trial of strontium-89, estramustine, and vinblastine for hormone refractory prostate carcinoma involving bone. Cancer. 2002 Mar 15;94(6):1654-60.
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109: Windsor PM.
Predictors of response to strontium-89 (Metastron) in skeletal metastases from prostate cancer: report of a single centre's 10-year experience. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2001;13(3):219-27.
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110: Dafermou A, Colamussi P, Giganti M, Cittanti C, Bestagno M, Piffanelli A.
A multicentre observational study of radionuclide therapy in patients with painful bone metastases of prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med. 2001 Jul;28(7):788-98.
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117: Blake GM, Zivanovic MA, McEwan AJ, Condon BR, Ackery DM.
Strontium-89 therapy: strontium kinetics and dosimetry in two patients treated for metastasising osteosarcoma. Br J Radiol 1987 Mar;60(711):253-9

118: Giammarile F, Mognetti T, Resche I.
Bone pain palliation with strontium-89 in cancer patients with bone metastases. Q J Nucl Med. 2001 Mar;45(1):78-83. Review.
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119: Fuster D, Herranz R, Alcover J, Mateos JJ, Martin F, Vidal-Sicart S, Pons F.
[Treatment of metastatic bone pain with repeated doses of strontium-89 in patients with prostate neoplasm] Rev Esp Med Nucl. 2000 Aug;19(4):270-4. Spanish.
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120: Silberstein EB.
Systemic radiopharmaceutical therapy of painful osteoblastic metastases. Semin Radiat Oncol 2000 Jul;10(3):240-9
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121: Kossman SE, Weiss MA.
Acute myelogenous leukemia after exposure to strontium-89 for the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Cancer 2000 Feb 1;88(3):620-4

122: Quilty PM, Kirk D, Bolger JJ, Dearnaley DP, Lewington VJ, Mason MD, Reed NS, Russell JM, Yardley J.
A comparison of the palliative effects of strontium-89 and external beam radiotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 1994 Apr;31(1):33-40

123: Dearnaley DP, Bayly RJ, A'Hern RP, Gadd J, Zivanovic MM, Lewington VJ.
Palliation of bone metastases in prostate cancer. Hemibody irradiation or strontium-89? Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 1992 Mar;4(2):101-7
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124: Kothari K, Samuel G, Banerjee S, Unni PR, Sarma HD, Chaudhari PR, Unnikrishnan TP, Pillai MR.
186Re-1,4,8,11-tetraaza cyclotetradecyl-1,4,8,11-tetramethylene phosphonic acid: a novel agent for possible use in metastatic bone-pain palliation. Nucl Med Biol 2001 Aug;28(6):709-17
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125: Berk L.
Prospective trials for the radiotherapeutic treatment of bone metastases. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 1995 Jul-Aug;12(4):24-8
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126: Powsner RA, Zietman AL, Foss FM.
Bone marrow suppression after strontium-89 therapy and local radiation therapy in patients with diffuse marrow involvement. Clin Nucl Med 1997 Mar;22(3):147-50
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Radiotherapy References

29: Joensuu H, Tenhunen M.
Physical and biological targeting of radiotherapy. Acta Oncol 1999;38 Suppl 13:75-83
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53: Koswig S, Buchali A, Bohmer D, Schlenger L, Budach V.
[Palliative radiotherapy of bone metastases. A retrospective analysis of 176 patients] [Article in German] Strahlenther Onkol 1999 Oct;175(10):509-14
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54: Rades D, Blach M, Nerreter V, Bremer M, Karstens JH
Metastatic spinal cord compression. Influence of time between onset of motoric deficits and start of irradiation on therapeutic effect. Strahlenther Onkol 1999 Aug;175(8):378-81
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55: Moller T.
Acta Oncol 1996;35 Suppl 7:125-36 Skeletal metastases.
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72: Algara M, Valls A, Ruiz V, Jaume M, Lacruz M, Foro P.
[Half-body irradiation. Palliative efficacy and predictive factors of response in 78 procedures] [Article in Spanish] Med Clin (Barc) 1994 Jun 18;103(3):85-8
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78: Niewald M, Tkocz HJ, Abel U, Scheib T, Walter K, Nieder C, Schnabel K, Berberich W, Kubale R, Fuchs M.
Rapid course radiation therapy vs. more standard treatment: a randomized trial for bone metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996 Dec 1;36(5):1085-9
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80: Hoegler D.
Radiotherapy for palliation of symptoms in incurable cancer. Curr Probl Cancer 1997 May-Jun;21(3):129-83
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100: Quilty PM, Kirk D, Bolger JJ, Dearnaley DP, Lewington VJ, Mason MD, Reed NS, Russell JM, Yardley J.
A comparison of the palliative effects of strontium-89 and external beam radiotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol 1994 Apr;31(1):33-40
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102: Micheletti E, Ippolito V, Tonoli S, Barbera F, Saccalani M.
[Is radiotherapy still the first choice treatment in spinal metastases from breast cancer?] [Article in Italian] Radiol Med (Torino) 1996 Oct;92(4):470-4
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117: Jeremic B.
[Ondansetron in the prevention of radiation-induced nausea and emesis in patients treated with single-fraction irradiation] [Article in Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)] Srp Arh Celok Lek 1996 May-Jun;124(5-6):131-4
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125: Berk L.
Prospective trials for the radiotherapeutic treatment of bone metastases. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 1995 Jul-Aug;12(4):24-8
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134: Eble MJ, Eckert W, Wannenmacher M
[Value of local radiotherapy in treatment of osseous metastases, pathological fractures and spinal cord compression] [Article in German] Radiologe 1995 Jan;35(1):47-54
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Intratumoral Vertebroplasty

1: San Millan Ruiz D, Burkhardt K, Jean B, Muster M, Martin JB, Bouvier J, Fasel JH, Rufenacht DA, Kurt AM. Pathology findings with acrylic implants. Bone 1999 Aug;25(2 Suppl):85S-90S

13: Ratliff J, Nguyen T, Heiss J. Root and spinal cord compression from methylmethacrylate vertebroplasty, Spine 2001 Jul 1;26(13):E300-2

18: Peh WC, Gilula LA, Zeller D. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: a new technique for treatment of painful compression fractures. Mo Med 2001 Mar;98(3):97-102

41: Barr JD, Barr MS, Lemley TJ, McCann RM. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for pain relief and spinal stabilization. Spine 2000 Apr 15;25(8):923-8

45: Levine SA, Perin LA, Hayes D, Hayes WS. An evidence-based evaluation of percutaneous vertebroplasty. Manag Care 2000 Mar;9(3):56-60, 63

46: Cotten A, Dewatre F, Cortet B, Assaker R, Leblond D, Duquesnoy B, Chastanet P, Clarisse J. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteolytic metastases and myeloma: effects of the percentage of lesion filling and the leakage of methyl methacrylate at clinical follow-up. Radiology 1996 Aug;200(2):525-30

94: Chiras J, Depriester C, Weill A, Sola-Martinez MT, et. al., Percutaneous vertebral surgery. Technics and indications. J Neuroradiol 1997 Jun;24(1):45-59

101: Cortet B, Cotten A, Boutry N, Dewatre F,, Percutaneous vertebroplasty in patients with osteolytic metastases or multiple myeloma. Rev Rhum Engl Ed 1997 Mar;64(3):177-83 Comment in: Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1997 Mar;64(3):145-6.

113: Cotten A, Dewatre F, Cortet B, Assaker R,, Percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteolytic metastases and myeloma: effects of the percentage of lesion filling and the leakage of methyl methacrylate at clinical follow-up. Radiology 1996 Aug;200(2):525-30

118: Weill A, Chiras J, Simon JM, Rose M, Sola-Martinez T, Enkaoua E., Spinal metastases: indications for and results of percutaneous injection of acrylic surgical cement. Radiology 1996 Apr;199(1):241-7

Intratumoral Injections

1: Wien Med Wochenschr 1993;143(12):312-21
[Microinvasive CT-controlled tumor therapy of soft tissue and skeletal metastases][Article in German]
Gronemeyer DH, Seibel RM.
Institut fur Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitat Witten/Herdecke, Mulheim a.d. Ruhr, Deutschland.
Fetch PMID: 7692678

16: AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999 Jun-Jul;20(6):1091-6
Comment in: AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Jun-Jul;20(6):959-60.
Alcohol ablation of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas.
Goyal M, Mishra NK, Sharma A, Gaikwad SB, Mohanty BK, Sharma S.
Department of Neuroradiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.
Fetch PMID: 10445448

17: Radiographics 1999 May-Jun;19(3):647-53
Therapeutic percutaneous injections in the treatment of malignant acetabular osteolyses.
Cotten A, Demondion X, Boutry N, Cortet B, Chastanet P, Duquesnoy B, Leblond D.
Department of Skeletal Radiology, Hopital Roger Salengro-CHRU de Lille, France.
Fetch PMID: 10336194

18: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1998 Jan;25(1):121-4
[A case of advanced gastric cancer with multiple bone metastasis successfully treated by both methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil sequential therapy, and endoscopic intratumoral injection of 5-fluorouracil] [Article in Japanese]
Sasahara K, Uchida Y, Kamei M, Matsuda K, Kawabata H, Nishioka M.
Third Dept. of Internal Medicine, Kagawa Medical University.
Fetch PMID: 9464338

19: Isr J Med Sci 1997 Oct;33(10):674-6
Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with psoas abscess-like metastasis in an HIV-negative patient.
Bar-Dayan Y, Fishman A, Levi Z, Rachmani R.
Department of Medicine, Meir Hospital, Kfar-Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine,Tel Aviv University, Israel.
Fetch PMID: 9397142

20: Nucl Med Biol 1997 Jul;24(5):465-9
Preparation of yttrium-90-labeled human macroaggregated albumin for regional radiotherapy.
Watanabe N, Oriuchi N, Igarashi H, Higuchi T, Yukihiro M, Fukushima Y, Tomiyoshi K, Hirano T, Inoue T, Endo K.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gunma University, School of Medicine, Japan.
Fetch PMID: 9290084

23: Acta Physiol Pharmacol Ther Latinoam 1996;46(2):103-10
Great particles [32P]chromic phosphate for treatment of solid tumors.
Zubillaga MB, Boccio JR, Nicolini JO, Ughetti R, Lanari E, Caro RA.
Radioisotope Laboratory, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Buenos Aires, Argentina. postmast@radioqui.ff)
Fetch PMID: 8998364

24: J Neurosurg 1996 Jan;84(1):124-6
Use of bleomycin in intratumoral chemotherapy for cystic craniopharyngioma. Case report.
Cavalheiro S, Sparapani FV, Franco JO, da Silva MC, Braga FM.
Neurosurgery Department, Sao Paulo Federal University, Brazil.
Fetch PMID: 8613819

25: Hopkins K, Chandler C, Bullimore J, Sandeman D, Coakham H, Kemshead JT.A pilot study of the treatment of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas with intratumoral yttrium-90 radioimmunoconjugates. Radiother Oncol 1995 Feb;34(2):121-31

29: Arch Dermatol 1989 Aug;125(8):1093-5
Merkel cell carcinoma. A successful treatment with tumor necrosis factor.
Ito Y, Kawamura K, Miura T, Ueda K, Onodera H, Takahashi H, Horikoshi T,
Sugiyama S, Takahashi M.
Department of Dermatology, Sapporo Medical College, Japan.
Fetch PMID: 2757406

42: Radiographics 1996 Nov;16(6):1289-304; discussion 1304-6
Interventional radiologic procedures with CT guidance in cancer pain management.
Gangi A, Dietemann JL, Schultz A, Mortazavi R, Jeung MY, Roy C.
Department of Radiology B, University Hospital of Strasbourg, France.
Fetch PMID: 8946536

65: Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 1995 Mar;162(3):232-5
[The percutaneous CT-guided treatment of osteoid osteomas: a combined procedure with a biopsy drill and subsequent ethanol injection] [Article in German]
Adam G, Keulers P, Vorwerk D, Heller KD, Fuzesi L, Gunther RW.
Klinik fur Radiologische Diagnostik, RWTH Aachen.
Fetch PMID: 7718779

69: J Comput Assist Tomogr 1994 Nov-Dec;18(6):932-5
Injection of alcohol into bone metastases under CT guidance.
Gangi A, Kastler B, Klinkert A, Dietemann JL.
Department of Radiology B, University Hospital of Strasbourg, France.
Fetch PMID: 7962803

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